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By Henri Bresc & Annliese Nef

ISBN-10: 2080710699

ISBN-13: 9782080710697

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11 Or any Löwenheim–Skolem theorem; see Appendix I. 12 As observed by Hale and Wright (1997: 451). 13 We can think of ‘situations’ here as possible worlds. And just as we have thought of the actual world as a particular model, so we can think of each possible world as a further model. 14 For example, to run a permutation argument, we start with some given possible worlds. For each possible world, W γ , we then define a permutation, πγ , to obtain a permuted world isomorphic with W γ . Each sentence will receive the same truth value in the permuted world as it received in the original world.

Indeed, we can think about empirical adequacy simply in terms of a correspondence between sensationwords and sensations. 19 Posit-words do not talk directly about sensations, but they nonetheless acquire empirical content thanks to the (structural) role they play within the entire theory. Spelling this idea out in any detail is extremely challenging,20 but for present purposes all that matters is that we consider only the connection that the posit-words have to the wider theory, and thereby their derivative connection to the bracketed sensations.

In the case of perceptions, the internal core is supposed to be the sense data of having that perception. )7 7 Putnam (2000: 133; see also 1993b: 183; 1994c: 458–60, 464–5, 475, 488–90, 494; 1999: 15–16, 19, 30, 43–5, 48, 58, 101; 2000: 142) criticisms of ‘Cartesianism cum materialism’. 2 a constructed world 35 For the remainder of this chapter, I shall set aside the main task of attacking external realism. Instead, I shall trace the idea of narrow experience—the ‘internal core’ just mentioned—through various versions of empiricism.

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Idrîsî: La première géographie de l'Occident by Henri Bresc & Annliese Nef

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