Biology - download pdf or read online

By Julian Sutton (auth.)

ISBN-10: 1271271281

ISBN-13: 9781271271283

ISBN-10: 1349152013

ISBN-13: 9781349152018

ISBN-10: 1403905622

ISBN-13: 9781403905628

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In others, Itjust sits there. Why do men have nipples? Men share a comrnon development plan wlth women. A pair ot structures is produced In both sexes. In wamen, they grow and develop useful features. In men, they Just slt there. Why da we have five toes on each foot and five fingers on esch hand (all right, four fingers and a thumb)? It is hard to see any adaptive reason tor five, rather than tour or six, but there Is no need to find one. Mammals share a body plan with a particular bone structure In the IImbs.

The echinoderms indude starfish, sea urchins and sea cucumbers. Phylum Chordata Most, but not quite all chordates are vertebrates. All chordates have a common set of features at so me stage of their development. These indude a hollow nerve cord running along the dorsal (back) side of the body (in vertebrates this is the spinal cord); a stiff rod of tissue running alongside the nerve cord, at least in the embryo, called the notochord; and a tail which extends beyond the anus. The vertebrates also have an internal skeleton ofbone or cartilage, induding a vertebral column (backbone).

A simple, very extreme example shows how. Imagine an animal population which is severely limited by a predator species. An effective deterrent would make the population much more successful. Now imagine a gene which causes a very extreme reaction to a predator. An animal with this gene mounts a frenzied, uninhibited attack on the predator. It is almost always fatal to the animal, but also hadly injures the predator. An imaginary population made up of these 'suicide bombers' might be very successful.

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Biology by Julian Sutton (auth.)


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