Download PDF by Nina Berberova;Marian Schwartz: Billancourt Tales
By Nina Berberova;Marian Schwartz
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Extra resources for Billancourt Tales
6—Contraction joints and cracks The principal function of vertical contraction joints is to control cracking due to foundation restraint, foundation geometry, and thermal volume change. Drying shrinkage occurs at the surface of exposed mass concrete, but it does not occur to depth in most massive structures such as dams. Contraction joints have also been used as formed construction joints that divide the dam into separate independent work areas or monoliths. Depending on the mixture, climate, and approach to design, some RCC projects have included many contraction joints, while others have had no contraction joints.
By making the aggregate drain large enough, it can always be excavated to create a gallery if this becomes necessary in the future. Galleries are an obstacle to rapid and efficient placement of RCC. Safety during construction is also affected due to the confined work area, as is the quality of RCC that can be placed in the restricted area between the upstream face and the gallery. In lifts with galleries, RCC placement efficiency is always less than it would be absent the gallery. 5R-11) large lifts relative to the exposed gallery, placement efficiency may remain quite high, perhaps as much as 90%, depending on placement means and methods.
As with any dam design, the designer of RCC structures should be confident that design assumptions are realistically achievable with the construction conditions anticipated and the materials available. Joint shear strength and sample data are discussed more in Chapters 4 and 6, and in various references (Schrader 1999; USACE 1995a; Electric Power Research Institute 1986; McLean and Pierce 1988; Boggs and Richardson 1985; Tayabji and Okamoto 1987). 0 (corresponding to a φ angle of 45 degrees) is generally used.
Billancourt Tales by Nina Berberova;Marian Schwartz