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By Ronald F. Dodson, Samuel P. Hammar
Asbestos is a vintage instance of a naturally-occurring substance that may be a perilous future health danger. Dodson (U. of Texas medical institution, Tyler) and Hammar (a Bremerton, WA medical pathologist focusing on asbestos-related lung sickness) introduce 8 chapters by means of US specialists comprehensively protecting the lengthy background of business mining of those households of invaluable minerals; why the human breathing procedure is prone to asbestosis and asbestos-induced lung melanoma; and the positive factors, epidemiology, and analysis of such illnesses. A center curriculum for physicians is gifted protecting medical and felony matters. A precis folks asbestos-related laws is appended.
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Additional resources for Asbestos: Risk Assessment, Epidemiology, And Health Effects
8 EDS x-ray spectra for NIST reference asbestos fibers. 21 His document, circulated in draft form in 1984, was never officially adopted by EPA. Although it remained in draft form, it became the generally accepted method for TEM analysis of airborne asbestos. As a fiber definition, it used the minimum AR of 3:1 from the NIOSH and OSHA methods but had no minimum fiber length. However, fibers less than 1 mm at the fluorescent screen magnification level were characterized as being 1 mm. 5 mm. 2 for a comparison of fiber definitions used by several airborne asbestos analysis methods.
Elongated particles with ARs greater than 3:1 or 5:1 that did not come from a population of asbestos fibers are sometimes called cleavage fragments. The distinction of how to tell an asbestos fiber from a cleavage fragment is currently being debated within the scientific community. 5 These include mean ARs in the range from 20:1 to 100:1 or higher for fibers longer than 5 mm. 5 mm in width, and two or more of the following: . . Parallel fibers occurring in bundles Fiber bundles displaying splayed ends Matted masses of individual fibers Fibers showing curvature It is more difficult to classify individual fibers as to asbestiform or cleavage fragments because individual fibers do not exhibit all the characteristics of a population.
Spectra from several Libby amphibole fibers are similar to tremolite or actinolite reference materials but differ in small amounts of sodium and potassium. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author would like to thank Bryan Bandli, Randy Boltin, Pronda Few, Al Harmon, Whitney Hill, Bill Turner, and Beth Wortman for their help in providing figures and editing assistance for this chapter. REFERENCES 1. , Ann Arbor, MI, 1980, p. 21. 34 ASBESTOS: RISK ASSESSMENT, EPIDEMIOLOGY, AND HEALTH EFFECTS 2. , Asbestos Identification, McCrone Research Institute, Chicago, IL, 1987.
Asbestos: Risk Assessment, Epidemiology, And Health Effects by Ronald F. Dodson, Samuel P. Hammar