Download e-book for kindle: Anal and Rectal Diseases Explained by Eli D., M.D. Ehrenpreis
By Eli D., M.D. Ehrenpreis
Even though rectal and perianal court cases are one of the most typical noticeable by means of fundamental care physicians, surgeons, and gastroenterologists, the big variety of problems linked to those lawsuits are, typically, poorly understood. also, various more moderen diagnostic resonance imaging, at the moment are being hired for the assessment of those issues. ultimately, new pharmacotherapies, together with immunosuppressants and topical treatments in addition to new surgical remedies, have emerged. those are defined in a transparent, undemanding demeanour.
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Extra resources for Anal and Rectal Diseases Explained
Figure 1b. Normal view of the rectum on barium enema. Enema tip is present (arrow). 21 Chapter 2 Complementary procedures Colonoscopy, anorectal manometry, anorectal electromyography (EMG), defecography, abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) scan, stool culture, stool microscopy, stool for Clostridium difficile toxin testing, fecal fat testing, and electrolyte examination. Contraindications Prior allergic reaction to barium, imperforate anus, bowel obstruction, or tight stricture of the colon.
Dehydration and electrolyte abnormalities – including hypernatremia, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and hypomagnesemia – may occur with sodium phosphate-based colonoscopy preparations. Recently, several cases of severe hyponatremia have been described after polyethylene glycol preparation. Respiratory depression, hypotension, and bradycardia associated with excessive sedation are infrequent. Patients generally experience some discomfort during the procedure. Additional comments New techniques for colon cancer screening, including CT of the colon (virtual colonoscopy) and molecular biology based stool testing, are under investigation.
In anal sphincter injuries and neuromuscular damage, decreased or erratic motor function is documented. Complications Patients often complain of discomfort; bleeding and/or infection are rare complications. Additional comments Surface electrode techniques reduce patient discomfort and decrease the risk of infection; however, needle EMG is more accurate for documenting anal trauma and sphincter injuries. A 24-hour ambulatory EMG has been proposed as a sensitive means of correlating symptoms with disorders of the anal sphincter and puborectalis muscles.
Anal and Rectal Diseases Explained by Eli D., M.D. Ehrenpreis