An Introduction to Chemical Metallurgy - download pdf or read online
By R. H. Parker and D. W. Hopkins (Auth.)
Contents: advent to Thermodynamics Entropy, loose power and Chemical Equilibrium recommendations response Kinetics Electrochemistry Interfacial Phenomena Extraction and Refining of Metals Corrosion and Electrodeposition
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52 AN INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL METALLURGY Therefore, δ<1=Γ dT rp ^V rp I PdV= rp dT RdV ^V rp ' ¥/ ' because PV — RT for an ideal gas. Therefore, r2 v2 M = S2-S1 = jcvf+j«f. ^. an) We can now calculate the entropy change when the gas in Fig. 2a fills the evacuated chamber isothermally. The volume of the gas is doubled so that V2IVX = 2 (assuming that the two chambers have equal volume). 314x0-6931 = 5-762. Since the gas constant R = 8-314 J/°K mol, the entropy change is 5-762 J/°K mol. 2. 9). ASt=£.
1. Introduction In the first chapter, we were mainly concerned with an experimental law—the First Law of Thermodynamics—and its implications. In this chapter we shall again be considering the results of experiment, and these can be introduced by the following facts, which are both statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics: (i) heat always flows from a hotter to a colder body—never in the reverse direction; (ii) an isolated system always tends to take up a more disordered form—never of its own accord becoming more ordered.
21) 1180 To calculate Δ//298 Δ//298 = (A//Zn + A//C0) - (Δ// Ζη0 + Δ// € ) (Hess's law) = (0-110,500) - (-348,100+0) = +237,700 J. 693 To calculate J àCpjl. d7= / (-15-36+4-77xl0- 3 r+17-45xl0 5 r- 2 )dr. ^Note: if two molecules of a substance are involved in the equation, the value of Cp for the substance should be doubled. 30 AN INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL METALLURGY 693 = [-15·36Γ+2·38χ10- 3 Γ 2 -17·45χ10 5 Γ- 1 ] 298 = [-12,000] - [-10,200] = -1800 J. 1180 To calculate j ACp,n . dJ 693 ACp,n is the same as ACP)I except that Cp,Zn(S) is replaced by Cp,Zn(L).
An Introduction to Chemical Metallurgy by R. H. Parker and D. W. Hopkins (Auth.)