Read e-book online American Confluence: The Missouri Frontier from Borderland PDF
By Stephen Aron
Within the center of North the US, the Missouri, Ohio, and Mississippi rivers come jointly, uniting waters from west, north, and east on a trip to the south. this is often the zone that Stephen Aron calls the yank Confluence. Aron's cutting edge ebook examines the background of that quarter -- a house to the Osage, a colony exploited by means of the French, a brand new frontier explored by way of Lewis and Clark -- and focuses at the region's transition from a spot of overlapping borderlands to at least one of oppositional border states. American Confluence is a full of life account that would pride either the beginner historian.
Read Online or Download American Confluence: The Missouri Frontier from Borderland to Border State (History of the Trans-Appalachian Frontier) PDF
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Extra info for American Confluence: The Missouri Frontier from Borderland to Border State (History of the Trans-Appalachian Frontier)
Major Indian Nations in the Conﬂuence Region, c. 1700. French traders appealed for both symbolic and practical reasons. Glass beads, metal bells, and pieces of jewelry were attractive adornments, made more so by their exotic character. At the same time, iron implements, hoes, and pots eased burdens for women in cultivating soil and preparing food. Increasingly even more necessary for men were ﬁrearms, gunpowder, and lead balls. Without these the Missouris were at a disadvantage against enemies to the east who had access to French weapons.
Here, one concern was the circulation of French goods, especially ﬁrearms. Through trading and raiding, guns passed across the plains and into the hands of Apache and Comanche Indians, who turned them on Spanish communities in northern Mexico and New Mexico. Another matter was the movement of coureurs de bois 34 AMERICAN CONFLUENCE toward Santa Fe, which Spanish authorities mistakenly interpreted as the ﬁrst stage of an officially sanctioned French invasion. In 1720, to counter French inﬂuence in the Missouri valley and other western tributaries of the Mississippi, the Spanish governor in New Mexico sent an expedition to the north and east.
Others likely ventured further, lured by the ample bison herds that had spread across the grasslands west of the Mississippi River (including into the western parts of what is now Missouri). 8 In crossing the Mississippi, refugees from Cahokia moved among some people with whom they had long-standing trade and kinship ties and others who were less familiar to them. By the ﬁfteenth century, the area that became Missouri was home to a variety of groups, including possibly the Osages. According to the Osages’ creation myth, their origin traced to the mating of the ﬁrst Osage man, who came down from the sun, and the ﬁrst Osage woman, who hailed from the moon.
American Confluence: The Missouri Frontier from Borderland to Border State (History of the Trans-Appalachian Frontier) by Stephen Aron