John Julius Norwich's Absolute Monarchs: A History of the Papacy PDF
By John Julius Norwich
With the papacy embattled lately, it truly is necessary to have the point of view of 1 of the world’s such a lot complete historians. In Absolute Monarchs, John Julius Norwich captures approximately thousand years of proposal and devotion, intrigue and scandal. the boys (and probably one girl) who've held this place of infallible strength over thousands have ranged from heroes to rogues, admirably clever to absolutely decadent. Norwich, who knew popes and had deepest audiences with others, recounts in riveting element the histories of the main major popes and what they intended politically, culturally, and socially to Rome and to the world.
Norwich provides such courageous popes as blameless I, who within the 5th century effectively negotiated with Alaric the Goth, an invader civil gurus couldn't defeat, and Leo I, who twenty years later tamed (and might be paid off) Attila the Hun. right here, too, are the scandalous figures: Pope Joan, the mythic lady acknowledged (without any substantiation) to were elected in 855, and the notorious “pornocracy,” the 5 libertines who have been descendants or fanatics of Marozia, debauched daughter of 1 of Rome’s strongest families.
Absolute Monarchs brilliantly portrays reformers comparable to Pope Paul III, “the maximum pontiff of the 16th century,” who reinterpreted the Church’s educating and self-discipline, and John XXIII, who in 5 brief years beginning in 1958 “opened up the church to the 20th century,” instituting reforms that ended in Vatican II. Norwich brings the tale to the current day with Benedict XVI, who's dealing with an international priest intercourse scandal.
Epic and compelling, Absolute Monarchs is the dazzling tale of a few of history’s such a lot respected and reviled figures, males who nonetheless forged gentle and shadows at the Vatican and the realm at the present time.
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Extra info for Absolute Monarchs: A History of the Papacy
45 46 A WORLD HISTORY SKELETON SOCIAL AND POLITICAL UPHEAVAL The ﬁnal (fourth) set of new themes was more amorphous, but powerful in its own right: over the past century, most societies in the world moved to supplant some of the most characteristic systems of the agricultural past. This was not a globally-organized movement. It involved massive revolutions in some societies, headed by Russia and China. It embraced key aspects of national liberation movements as well. Political and social structures changed clearly.
Thanks to the new levels of Atlantic slavery plus more pressure for commercial production in Europe, the Americas and Asia, plus the burdens of population growth, the intensity of human labor may have increased in the early modern centuries, from more use of children to more need to continue working hard in later age. EMPIRES The third big global development involved the formation of a number of new empires. This reﬂected growing political capacity in many regions, as well as the importance of new military technologies – notably cannon – and new attention to military training and organization.
LOCATIONS The ﬁrst civilization emerged in the Tigris-Euphrates river valley – the region often called Mesopotamia – around 3500 BCE. It was preceded by some important technological improvements with the agricultural economy, including the wheel, the use of metal (bronze, an alloy of copper and tin) for tools and weapons, and of course the invention of the ﬁrst writing system. The Sumerian people introduced their cuneiform writing style, and then the ﬁrst known organized government on the heels of these key developments.
Absolute Monarchs: A History of the Papacy by John Julius Norwich