2009 ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals (I-P Edition) - download pdf or read online
By American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
The 2009 ASHRAE guide - basics covers easy rules and information utilized in the HVAC&R undefined. up to date with study backed by way of ASHRAE and others, this quantity contains 39 chapters masking normal engineering details, simple fabrics, weather facts, load and effort calculations, duct and pipe layout, and sustainability, plus reference tables for abbreviations and emblems, in addition to actual homes of fabrics. From the CD-ROM, the climatic layout stipulations tables were extra to this reference, that includes climatic conditions for almost each significant urban on the planet.
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Additional info for 2009 ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals (I-P Edition)
For compressible fluid metering, the expansion factor Y must be included, and the mass flow rate is 2 2U'p m· = C d Y Sd --------- -------------4 1 – E4 Fig. 21 Cavitation in Flows in Orifice or Valve (66) Compressible Conduit Flow When friction loss is included, as it must be except for a very short conduit, incompressible flow analysis applies until pressure drop exceeds about 10% of the initial pressure. The possibility of sonic velocities at the end of relatively long conduits limits the amount of pressure reduction achieved.
Turbulence causes the fluid to transfer momentum, heat, and mass very rapidly across the flow. Laminar and turbulent flows can be differentiated using the Reynolds number Re, which is a dimensionless relative ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces: §y· W = ¨--- ¸ W w = P dv -----dy ©b¹ (14) where Ww is wall shear stress [b(dp/ds)], and s is flow direction. Because velocity is zero at the wall ( y = b), Equation (14) can be integrated to yield 2 2 § b – y · dp v = ¨ ---------------- ¸ -----© 2P ¹ ds (19) where A is the cross-sectional area of the pipe, duct, or tube, and Pw is the wetted perimeter.
Pressure losses in smooth pipe bends. Journal of Basic Engineering, ASME Transactions 4(7):43. A. L.
2009 ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals (I-P Edition) by American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers